Analog Quantum Simulation

Analog Quantum Simulation platform using ultra-low-voltage electron beam lithography (ULV-EBL).

In the LevyLab, we exploit our ability to control, at the extreme nanoscale, the heterostructure LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO), and, because it demonstrates nearly properties found in the solid states, we use it as a platform to perform analog quantum simulations. LAO/STO is programed using a conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) lithography technique in which the interfacial conductivity can be programmed with a precision of 2 nm, comparable to the mean separation between electrons [1]. We have been able to engineer spin-orbit interaction in the LAO/STO by perturbing the path of a ballistic electron waveguide (1D) using a positively-biased c-AFM tip placed in contact with the LaAlO3 surface, locally switching the interface to a conducting state. By doing so, we may have complemented the engineered properties of LAO/STO for it to be used as a building block for simulation of 1D various complex quantum systems [2]. Additionally, motivated to develop novel quantum devices to learn about quantum materials, and vice versa, we have created Kronig–Penney-like 1D superlattice structures by spatially modulating the potential of a 1D electron waveguide using c-AFM lithography[3]. The systems created here focus on low-dimensional confined structures, which are challenging to create using other methods. Consequently, we have opened new frontiers in the development of quantum matter.